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ITRI关于缅甸锡矿(含佤族自治区)声明

[ 2017-3-7 | 10:22 ]
In recent years, tin production from the Self-Administered Division allocated to the Wa ethnic people in Myanmar has increased significantly to become an important part of the world's tin supply. Various media reports have highlighted potential impacts of US narcotic trafficking sanctions on the tin trade from this region, and other stakeholders have queries regarding the conflict status of the minerals produced. In the highly complex situation that exists in Myanmar, including around the various ethnic armed groups and the ongoing peace process, gathering and evaluation of information takes some time. ITRI continues to develop knowledge on this mining area as follows.
 
近年来,来自缅甸佤族少数民族地区——佤族自治区的锡产量增长迅速,已经成为世界锡供应的重要组成部分。各种媒体的报道突出了美国毒品走私制裁对该区域锡交易的潜在影响,而其他利益相关者就该地区矿产的冲突状况提出质疑。缅甸高度复杂的情况,如周边各少数民族武装、持续不断的和平进程等,使得信息数据的收集和评估都需要花费很长时间。国际锡协(ITRI)对该矿业地区持续了解的情况如下:
 
The government of Myanmar recognises a Self-administered Division for the Wa ethnic people which borders, and has close ties with, the Yunnan Province of China. A major tin mine (Man Maw) is within the recognised Self-administered Division and this produced around 50,000 tonnes of tin in 2016. This tin is generally smelted in China.
缅甸政府承认佤族少数民族自治区,边界与中国云南省接壤。主要锡矿(曼相)位于佤族自治区内,2016年产量50,000吨。这些锡一般在中国冶炼。
 
Tin is also mined in the Tanintharyi Region of southern Myanmar which is under sole control of the national government of Myanmar. This area produced around 2,000 tonnes of tin in 2016 which is generally not smelted in China but elsewhere.
缅甸南部德林达依省(Tanintharyi)的矿山由缅甸政府独家管理和运营。2016年锡产量2,000吨,一般在中国以外的区域冶炼。
 
The Wa Self-administered Division is governed by the United Wa State Party (UWSP), which is supported by the United Wa State Army (UWSA) through an authority structure similar to that in China.
佤族自治区受佤邦联合党领导,佤邦联合党下辖佤邦联合军(佤联军),权利机构的组织形式与中国类似。
 
The UWSA does not seek a sovereign state independent from Myanmar, and both agreed a ceasefire in 1989, which was renewed in 2011. The UWSA and the central government have not been in direct conflict in recent times and have held regular talks, including around the current 21st Century Panglong Peace Conference.
佤联军不寻求脱离缅甸中央政府建立主权独立国家。双方于1989年签订停火协议,于2011年再次签订。佤联军与中央政府近期无直接冲突,并保持常规对话,包括21世纪彬龙会议。
 
ITRI has actively shared information on tin mining areas in Myanmar, including the Wa Division, with our members, the public and important stakeholders since the region became an important source of tin around five years ago. ITRI members are all Conflict Free Smelter Program (CFSP) compliant, with Myanmar sources reported to the supply chain as part of the CFSP audit process.
五年前缅甸(包括佤族自治区)成为锡的重要来源地区,ITRI自此积极开始与会员、公众及重要投资方分享该国家地区的锡矿信息。ITRI的会员都是无冲突冶炼项目(CFSP)的支持者,缅甸矿源作为CFSP审核程序的一部分,会在审核时进行供应链报告。
 
US sanctions arising from US domestic drug trafficking controls connected to the UWSP, UWSA and various related individuals have been in place for many years, although these have only recently been raised in the media. It has also been separately reported that Wa have taken positive steps to replace heroin poppy fields with new types of income from agriculture (rubber and tea), as well as mining.
美国对佤邦联合党、佤联军及其他相关毒品走私交易的制裁由来已久,只是近期才显著于媒体报端。独立见诸于各类报道的还有佤族自治区在积极推进新型收入,大力发展农业(橡胶和茶)以及矿业等以取代海洛因和罂粟方面的努力与进步。
 
ITRI fully supports the international multi-stakeholder agreed approach of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (DDG) designed to promote progressive improvement in circumstances of mining. The DDG makes recommendations for mitigating any illegal involvement of either state, or non-state, armed groups in mining, and explains that non-state armed groups can be identified by reference to UN Security Council Resolutions. In this case, there do not appear to be any UN resolutions referring to the UWSA. The US State Department country report for Myanmar (Burma) does not name UWSA but refers to 'ethnic armed groups' in direct conflict with the government which does not appear applicable to UWSA.
ITRI完全支持国际上达成一致的针对冲突地区和高风险地区负责任供应链的OECD(经合组织)尽职调查,以逐步改善矿区的状况和环境。尽职调查建议在政府、非政府武装、矿区武装的称谓上消除法律争议,并阐明非政府武装团体可以参考联合国安理会决议进行定义。根据这项标准,联合国的任何一个决议里并未提到佤联军。美国国务院关于缅甸的报告中指出的与政府有直接冲突的“少数民族武装团体”中,也没有提到佤联军,因此非政府武装不适用于佤联军。
 
Notwithstanding uncertainty over interpretation of the DDG, ITRI recommends its use to all ITRI members and has active projects working to practically implement recommendations for utilising this approach to ensure responsible tin supply. An important step in due diligence for high risk areas is to obtain sufficient information to make appropriate follow up decisions, and ITRI is continuing to work with members to learn more about tin mining in Wa. We aim to achieve a good understanding of local risk scenarios through local consultation in order to avoid negative impacts of potential disengagement and embargo from sudden actions that may turn out to be inappropriate and harmful.
尽管尽职调查的诠释包含一定的不确定性,ITRI仍推荐给所有会员使用。同时将积极开展一些项目,通过实际的运营来确保负责任的锡供应。针对高风险地区的尽职调查,重要的一步是获取充分的信息作出合适的决策。ITRI将和会员一起持续关注和了解佤族自治区锡矿的最新消息。我们的目标是通过向当地咨询信息深入了解区域风险,避免因出现突发事件引起分裂和禁运并带来消极影响,这些有可能使得事件更加恶化且造成伤害。
 
An important statement from Yunnan Tin Company (YTC) regarding tin sourcing from Wa can be found here http://www.ytl.com.cn/info/1003/4703.htm. The statement notes that YTC, together with ITRI, are already actively working in alignment with the recommendations of the DDG to understand and implement improvements in practices relating to sourcing from Wa as necessary.
云南锡业公司就佤邦矿源所做的重要声明可以通过点击以下链接获得http://www.ytl.com.cn/info/1003/4703.htm 。声明中提到,云南锡业公司将于与ITRI一起在尽职调查的指引下,在实践中对佤邦锡矿矿源进行理解和改进。
 
We look forward to further discussions with engaged stakeholders in the coming months in order to obtain greater clarity on the points above, and to contribute to positive and practical solutions to address any identified risks related to the mineral trade and conflict and/or serious human rights abuses if these risks are verified to exist.
我们期望之后的几个月里能与相关利益方进行深度会谈,以便更清晰的阐释上述观点。同时强调,如果确实存在任何矿产品贸易的相关风险、冲突、严重侵犯人权的行为,我们也将努力促成积极的、实际的解决方案。
 
ITRI always welcomes information and discussions on any concerns regarding issues in the tin mineral trade and feedback or questions can be addressed to Kay Nimmo, Manager of Sustainability and Regulatory Affairs, kay.nimmo@itri.co.uk
ITRI欢迎关于任何与锡矿贸易相关的讨论与信息,问题和反馈请致邮ITRI可持续发展与法规部经理 Kay Nimmo女士kay.nimmo@itri.co.uk